I just ran into this except that I had just recently changed my password. Probably not your case. Did your CRM Online instance recently get upgraded, that looks like the old-style OData service connection but I'd have to double check to be sure. I had some issues with this when our tenant got upgraded and had to switch out the URL to the OData service.
If our dataset connect to only one of the "Dynamics CRM feed file" or "On Premises data sources" the refresh is working fine. We are getting issue when we are having combination of "Online and On Premise" data sources. So, i believe OData service connection is not a problem.
This is the exact issue I am facing although we are not connecting to any on prem data. Just to an Azure SQL Database. It works fine in the desktop version but as soon as we publish it to our PowerBI portal and refresh it, it throws this error:
Data source error: The credentials provided for the OData source are invalid.
However, we then created a single dataset that pulled the top 100 contacts from CRM. Worked fine in Desktop version, published fine and refreshed fine in the portal. So its not a credential issue. We then went back to the original workbook and limited the big datasets to 100 records....again, it all worked find in Desktop and when we published to the portal and refreshed. But as soon as we remove the restriction on the rows and the full workbook is refreshed it throws the above error. At a loss as to whether its a timeout issue or too much data...even though the error message indicates credentials.