However, if you create are Power BI report using a data set from the Power BI Service and you create a measure on a table, the "Publish to Web" option will not come up after publishing to the PBI Service. Once you remove the measure(s) and re-publish, the "Publish to Web" option appears. It is an easy fix, to add the measure to the data set and re-upload, it will not affect reports that are already using the dataset. This is happenning through this version of PBI Desktop. Version: 2.54.4970.961 64-bit (January 2018)
1st upload a dataset (does not require the report portion), then create a new report that uses the dataset from the PBI service, this is done by using "get data" then select Power BI Service and then select the dataset from the workspace you saved the dataset to. Then, create a measure on the data set, say count of records (do not use the visual count of records, but create a measure resulting in a new column in the dataset). Put this column on a visual, like the table visual. Save and publish to app.powerbi.com. Open on app.powerbi.com, under file, you will not see the "publish to web" option. Update the report in the desktop by removing the measure and displaying any other data point, save and publish and the "publish to web" option will return under file.
While I value your opinion, you have not reproduced the issue because you missed the step to create a meause on the service data set after publishing the dataset. I saw there was a desktop update however that did not help the issue. With no changes except including or not including the measure built on a service data set, the publish to web is removed when the meause exists.
Steps to reproduce: Publish a data set to the app.powerbi.com service, open a new report in the desktop user get data and select service and then select the dataset you published to the service, then create a measure on a column on a table (note you do not need to put the measue in a visual, the existance causes the issue), publish the new report, open report on app.powerbi.com, you will see no publish to web option under file, update the report using PBI desktop and remove the measure you created, republish and the publish to web will come back.
In my option, I would suggest that Microsoft either fix the issue or update the limitations to include measures on service data sets.
None that I have heard, only 2 so far have noticed, one would think it would be more prevelant as creating measures causes the upload to bloat and there is only a 2 hour limit to get it up there, that is a serious issue in my opinion, we are considering stopping use of the PBI service for data sets and instead use an Azure or on-premise Tabular Analysis server, not as convenient but no limitations at our model size.