If it is Onedrive personal, you will need to use the Web connector to the excel file and essentially scrape the data.
If it is Onedrive for business, but they do not let you access the folder structure, unfortunately it will be the same - the web connector.
In either case, you paste in the URL from your browser you are using to view the Excel file online to the Web Connector in Power Query, and go from there.
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