There's no properties on the visual host or visual update options that expose this info. I've just reviewed the Selection Manager API as well just in case, and we only have methods we can invoke based on selectionId(s); it appears that the visual host delegates the select action on our behalf based on the drill preference from the visual header and updates the dataView accordingly. I wired this up in a visual I'm currently working on and seems to confirm my initial thoughts.
Unfortunately not, no. The dataView just contains results of the query, so the filter details are not known.
You only get to see filters applied if it's your visual doing the filtering, i.e. it's working as a slicer. In these cases, you'll get the details in the jsonFilters property in the visual update's options object. This will only be the filters your visual has applied, so again, no external criteria.
The only time a regular visual gets hints of what's being filtered is if it's enabled for highlight. In these cases, you still need to compare values array vs highlights array.
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