Admittedly I feel I'm chasing my tail on understanding exatcly when I would require a Pro license. I have 2 questions I'd appreciate thoughts on:
1. For any dataset that is to be refreshed automatically (aka scheduled) via a Personal or Enterprise Gateway, a PowerBI Pro license is required. Thus, any dataset that requires a refresh must be updated within the PowerBI Desktop's PBIX file, and then re-published to the PowerBI service.
2. For any Online data services, such as Dynamics 365 and Projects Online, my PowerBI Desktop PBIX file downloads all the relevant entities that I've connected to and includes the dataset within the PBIX file. Understanding that these online services don't require a personal or enterprise gateway to be installed, but when I publish this dashboard, will it refresh automatically from the Dynamics 365/Projects online platforms, or will it also require a PowerBI Pro license?
This implies that any dataset that requires a refresh
For On-premises data sources, which require a Power BI Gateway - Personal and/or the On-premises Data Gateway require the Power BI Pro license. We need to use Power BI Desktop to import data from on-premises data sources or makes use of a live connection or DirectQuery to the on-premises data sources, then publish them to the Power BI Service. Schedule refresh is used for imported dataset. If your connection makes use of a live connection or DirectQuery, the data will be update to date.
For Online data services, such as Dynamics 365, it is automatically refreshed for you, and PowerBI Pro license is not necessary.
If you need to use OData feed to connect to Projects Online in Power BI Desktop, then you can manually refresh the data or setup a refresh schedule, and because the data in the data source comes from an OData feed online, you do not need to install a gateway, and PowerBI Pro license is not necessary either.
For more details about data refresh for different data sources in Power BI, you can refer to this official article.