It can be simple but you will need a date table and to create a total for current scores and last year scores. You always want to build on measures, not on actual columns if possible. So, if your data is coming from your Fact Table using the column of funding:
Current Funding = SUM('Fact'[Funding])
Last Year = CALCULATE([Current Funding], DATEADD(DateTable[DateKey], -1, year))
Change = [Current Funding]-[Last Year]
%Change = DIVIDE([Change], [Last year])
You would then filter to the current year and put your Grade in the rows of the matrix with the measures in the columns. In fact, you would only need to add the [% Change] measure and not show the other calculations unless you wanted to.
On point, This is assuming a standard date table. You might need to create a custom date table with academic periods similar to a fiscal calendar since your academic year crosses the official end of the year mark.
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